1. Hughes, T. Collected Poems, Faber, 2000, p.24.

2. Heinze, D. ‘Ted Hughes: The Art of Poetry’, The Paris Review, Vol.37, No. 134, Spring 1995, p.11.

3. Graves, R. The White Goddess, Faber, 1961. This book was given to Ted by his school English master, John Fisher, just before he went up to Cambridge.

4. Hughes to Gammage, 7 April 1995, in Reid, C. (ed.) Letters of Ted Hughes, Faber, 2007, p. 679.

5. This book belonged to Hughes’s sister, Olwyn. Later, as he told Ekbert Fass (The Unaccommodated Universe, Black Sparrow Press, Santa Barbara,1980, p.37), he read all the translated volumes, and many of Jung’s works are present in his library which is now held at Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

6. Hughes, T. ‘Myth and Education’, Children’s Literature in Education 1, APS Publications, March 1970, pp. 55-70; and ‘Myth and Education’, Writers, Critics and Children, Fox, Hammond, Jones, Smith and Sterck (Eds.) Heineman, 1976, largely reprinted in Scammell, W. (ed.) Ted Hughes: Winter Pollen, Faber1988, pp.137-153.

7. Hughes to Skea, 10 November 1982 (unpublished); and Reid (ed.) Letters of Ted Hughes Hughes to Skea, 3 November 1984, p.191-2.

8. Hughes, Collected Poems, p.33.

9. Hughes, Collected Poems, p.82.

10. Hughes, T. Shakespeare and the Goddess of Complete Being, Faber, 1992, pp.5-12.

11. The early poem ‘Fair Choice’ (Hughes, Collected Poems, p.31) deals with this inner battle and specifically links the twins to Cain and Abel, as Graves does.

12. Hughes, Eat Crow, written in 1965 but not published until 1971 as a Rainbow Press, limited edition.

13. Hughes, ‘The Wound’, Wodwo, Faber, 1967, pp.104-146.

14. Jung’s Mysterium conjunctionis: an enquiry into the separation of psychic opposites in alchemy, Routledge, 1963, and Alchemical Studies, Routledge, 1967, are both in Hughes’s library at Emory University.

15. Hughes, Faber, 1978.

16. Hughes, Collected Poems, p. 437.

17 Hughes, Faber,1979.

18. Hughes, ‘Top Withens’, Collected Poems, p.486.

19. Hughes, ‘The River’, Collected Poems, p.664.

20. Hughes, ‘Salmon Eggs’, Collected Poems, p. 680-1.

21. Christian Cabbala was introduced to the Occult Neoplatonism of the Renaissance by Pico della Mirandola as a way of linking sacred Hebrew texts with those of Hermeticism and astrology within a Christian framework. Hughes describes it and its use in detail in Shakespeare and the Goddess of Complete Being, pp.18-34.

22. Hughes, Adam and the Sacred Nine, Rainbow Press, 1979; Collected Poems, pp.443-452.

23. Hughes, ‘The sole of a foot’, Collected Poems, pp.451-2. A complete analysis of the use of Cabbala in this sequence can be found at

24. Hughes read A.K.Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva, Penguin Classic, 1973, shortly after it was published and proceeded to write 96 of his own vacanas in a notebook now held in Emory University’s Rare Book Library: Ted Hughes Papers, Box 57/16. My detailed examination of these poems is scheduled to be published in Ted Hughes: Cambridge to Collected, by Palgrave Macmillan early in 2013.

25. Hughes, Collected Poems, pp.357-375.

26. Hughes, Collected Poems, pp.393-451.

27. Hughes, Critical Forum Series, Norwich Tapes, 1978. Transcript at:

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